Research that is conducted based on the measurement of quantity is known as quantitative research. The quantitative technique of research can be used in the research of those issues which can be measured exactly by the quantity or amount. This research considers to the measurable facts and finds out the result analyzing those facts using statistical or mathematical tools. It uses mean, median, mode, standard deviation, correlation, regression, z-test, t-test, f-test, etc. to analyze the data and finds out the solutions or draws conclusions. This research is conducted to know how and why thing happens in the society or organization. Quantitative data may be obtained from the secondary source of from the participants’ responses that are coded, categorized and converted into numbers so that these data can be used for further analysis.
Research that is concerned with subjective phenomena is known as qualitative research. The main aim of qualitative research is to get depth knowledge and explain the issue or subject rather than finding the solution or coming to the conclusions. It explains the issues and makes easier to understand the issue to the general people. The research uses; survey, interview types of tools while conducting qualitative research. It is conducted to understand the response of the people. Qualitative research is substantially used in the study of social science research. Qualitative research collects data from individuals, organization, books and other written documents, environment, medias and events. Qualitative research is used in market segmentation, development of the concept of advertisement, new product development, etc. following tools may be used in qualitative research:
- Content analysis
- Conversation analysis
- Comparative analysis
- Grounded theory
- Discourse analysis, etc.
Quantitative research is associated with deductive approach of testing theories usually based on facts and numbers. This approach of research is based on them and position on the theory of positivism. Qualitative approach follows inductive approach to create theory based on interpretivism approach.
Difference Between Quantitative and Qualitative Research
The Difference between Quantitative and Qualitative Research can be summarized as shown in the following table:
|Basis of Differences
|Focus of research
||Understand and analyze the issue.
||Explain and predict over any issue.
|Purpose of research
||In depth understanding and develop theory.
||Explain and predict over any subject and develop theory and its testing.
||Sample size is small.
||Sample size is large.
|Involvement of researcher
||Researcher himself involves in the research work.
||Involvement of researcher remains less in quantitative research.
||Data is collected through unstructured questionnaires.
||Data is collected through structured questionnaires.
||Collected data are analyzed based on established theories.
||Collected data are analyzed using various statistical tools.