Relation of Literature to Research
Literature and research have a relationship in different domains. Some of the domains of relationship are given below:
Researchers should have concepts related to their area of study. Such concepts and domains of the concepts can be obtained from the study of previous literature. It helps to proceed further to the study.
2. Select topic:
Generally, Academic research topics are selected from the gap of the previous studies. The researcher can find out the gap from the previous studies and finalize the topic of his/ her study.
3. Identify variables:
After deciding the topic, a researcher should find out the major domains which can measure the concept of the study. Researchers can find out such prominent domains going through previous literature.
4. Frame conceptual framework:
The researcher should establish the relationship between the dependent and independent variables before conducting research. Such relationship is assessed only through the relationships established by the previous studies.
5. Decide research design:
Literature provides ideas to the researchers about research designs that are used in the study of different issues. Researchers can decide the research design for their studies based on the study of previous literature.
6. Select the instruments for data collection:
A researcher can collect data using various techniques and tools like questionnaires, interviews, observations, etc. A researcher can decide the appropriate instrument for data collection by going through previous literature.
7. Select tool for data analysis:
Various analysis tools can be used to analyze the data. But the appropriateness of the tool depends on the nature and types of data, So, a researcher can decide on the analysis tool with the help of literature review,
Theoretical Framework and its Format
A theoretical framework is a conceptual model that shows the relationships among the several factors that have been identified as important to the problem. It is prepared after the literature review and interview with the concerned party and defining the problem. It presents logically to the previous research results and develops a scientific base relating to the assumptions with theories. It presents the relationship between dependent and independent variables that helps to develop hypotheses,
It manages the variables in a logical way that helps to test the problem or theories. A researcher should present the relationship of independent, dependent, moderating, and control variables that are identified in the research problems. The format of the theoretical framework is given below:
A growing body of empirical research has examined the effect of certain HRM practices on organizational performance. although there is a long list of best HR practices that can affect either independently or in bundles on the organizational performance. In order to examine the effect of HR practices on firm performance in the Nepalese context, the researcher chooses to examine the effect of best HR practices initially proposed by Pfeffer (1998) which, according to the literature, can be expected to influence the organizational performance.
Pfeffer (1998) proposes the following seven HRM practices: (1) job security; (2) selective hiring; (3) self-managed teams and decentralization of decision making; (4) comparatively high compensation contingent on organizational performance; (5) extensive training; (6) reduced status distinctions and barriers, including dress. (7) extensive sharing of financial and performance information throughout the organization. A growing quantity of empirical evidence suggested that the HR practices proposed by Pfeffer (1998) have a significant effect on the various settings. For instance, Ahmad and Schroeder (2003) attempted to generalize the findings of the impact of seven HRM practices, proposed by Pfeffer (1998), on operation management across countries and industries. the finding provides overall support for Pfeffer’s HR practices. guest (1997) proposed a typological model relating to the HR functions and their impact on HRM outcomes, behavioral outcomes performance outcomes,s and financial outcomes which is accepted by various researchers having empirical tests. study of passport et al (2008) and Vlahos (2008) also supported the findings of Pfeffer i.e. positive relationship between HR practices and organizational performance. various studies supported this typological model. thus, the following theoretical framework is developed:
Adopted from Pandey, D.L. (2015)’s Ph.D. Dissertation
HRM practices should be designed to lead to HRM outcomes of high employee commitment and high-quality staff. High quality will be assessed using standard measures and based on the measures suggested by Mowday and Noe and Wilks. High-quality staff refers to the capabilities and to the knowledge and skill of the staff. Guest (1997) showed the relationship that HRM practices increase commitment, satisfaction, innovation, productivity, and low turnover. Pfeffer in his study supported to proposäiom. It is essential to measure the impact of HRM practices on organizational performance. The theoretical framework showed the process of how HR practices impact organizational performance. Guest (1997) Suggested that HRM practices do not have a direct impact on organizational performance. First of all, generates the HRM outcomes. then behavioral outcome then performance outcome and ultimately the firm performance. Thus, this study to theoretical framework helps to see the relationship between HR practices and organizational performance along With the moderating effect of types of ownership.
Need of Theoretical Framework for Research
The theoretical framework identifies the variables, states the relationship of or more variables, and reasons for expecting such relationship. Thus, a theoretical framework is essential while undertaking research due to the following reasons:
1. Clarity in the variable:
The theoretical framework defines variables used in the research clarifying major measuring factors of the variables, Such factors help in clarifying the variables.
The theoretical framework provides guidelines about the nature of data required i.e. primary/secondary data. It also helps to develop the questionnaire for data collection.
3. Data analysis:
A relationship presented by the theoretical framework helps to choose the tools that are most suitable for the analysis of data.
4. Show relationship:
It presents the tentaåve guess relationship dependent, independent, moderating, and intervening variables based on previous theories.
5. Help to connect with theories:
It connects to the present research work with the previous theories. The theoretical framework is prepared based on previous theories and it is tested to see whether the relationship is accepted or rejected. Thus, it helps to connect theory with the present research.
6. Guide to interpret:
It guides to interpretation of the results in a cohesive manner. It helps to consider the possible frameworks and reduces biases that may be seen in the interpretation.
The conceptual framework clarifies the nature of the research problem. This framework determines how you perceive, make sense of and interpret your data.
Theory and Research
Research and theory are mutually related. The theory has different components like; Proposition, concept, construct, operational definition, variable, hypothesis, and model Every research is based on all the above components. Most of the basic research contributes to improvement in the theory. When theories are tested in different situations and the results are similar then it contributes to the development of the model Thus, theory helps to undertake research in a systematic way and research helps to improve in the existing theory or develop a new theory. Therefore, they are reciprocally related to each other. It is important for researchers to recognize the pervasiveness and value of theory. Theory serves us in many useful ways. It;
- Narrows down the facts we need to study,
- Suggests which research approaches are likely to yield the greatest meaning,
- Suggests a system for the researcher to impose on data in order to classify them in the most meaningful way.
- Summarizes what is known about an object of study and states the uniformities that lie beyond immediate observations.
a. Deductive reasoning approach:
Under this approach, research works move from the more general information to the specific information. It is the top-down approach. So, researchers start at the top with a very broad spectrum of information and they work their way down to a specific conclusion. It can be summarized as follows:
Begin with a theory —— Narrow down to specific hypotheses —— Observations for collecting data and test the hypotheses ——- ultimately lead to a confirmation of the original theory or amendment of original theory refusing some dimensions of it and arriving at a conclusion.
b. Inductive reasoning approach:
It works the opposite way of deductive reasoning. It moves from specific observations to broader generalizations and theories. It is a bottom-up approach. The researcher begins with specific observations and measures, detects patterns, formulates some tentative hypotheses to explore, and finally ends up developing some general conclusions or theories. The process of the inductive reasoning approach is given below:
Observaåon—–Find trend——-Formulate hypothesis——-Develop Theories