Meaning and Definition of Graphs and Charts | Advantages of Diagram | General Rules for Constructing Diagram
Graphs and Charts
The techniques of tabulation help us in summarizing the collected data and presenting them in a systematic manner. The study of data presented in the table is difficult. Thus, nowadays, data are presented in graphs and charts so as to present the data in the shape of attractive and appealing pictures and charts. Graphs and charts attract people. Graphic presentation refers to the presentation of data in geometrical figures. Figures presented in the graph provide short and clear information. The use of a type of figure depends on the research objective, research questions, and level of concerned stakeholders.
The following information provides some insights to decide the form of graphs and charts.
i. To present the highest and lowest figures of a variable, a simple bar diagram can be constructed.
ii. To present the ratio of any variable, a pie chart can be prepared.
iii. To present the trend of variables, a line chart and time series graph is prepared.
iv. To present the scatteredness of variables, the scattered diagram is prepared.
Advantages of Diagram
Following are the advantages of diagrammatic presentation of data:
i. It creates impression on the mind of the observer.
ii. It is easy to understand the facts, draw conclusions and take decisions.
iii. It saves time and labor. It presents everything at a glance and extra mental effort is not necessary to understand the data.
iv. It facilitates the comparison of data.
v. It is more attractive and convincing.
vi. It helps to remember the facts for a longer period of time.
General Rules for Constructing Diagram
Generally, the following rules are followed while constructing diagram:
1. Title: Above the diagram, the researcher should give a clear, complete, and short title of the diagram
2. Proper proportion between width and height: Proper composition of width and height of diagram is essential to make the diagram more attractive. Improper composition shows the diagram ugly. Generally, the diagram is to be prepared at the center of the paper.
3. Selection of scale: No definite rules can be laid down as regards the selection of scale. They should suit the size of the paper. The vertical and horizontal scales should clearly be seen.
4. Neatness and cleanliness: Diagram should be neat and clean. Thus, it should be clearly labeled and drawn.
5. Footnote: Footnote is written below the table to justify the table or to provide information that cannot be presented by the table.
6. Selection of diagram: Considering the nature of the data, the researcher should select the type of diagram.
7. Simplicity: Diagram must be simple so that everything that a picture wants to spell is understandable to the users.
8. Index: A brief index explaining various types of shades, colors, lines, and designs should be given for a clear understanding of the diagram.